Quantum Error Correction with the Semion Code

*G Dauphinais, L Ortiz, S Varona, MA Martin-Delgado*

We present a full quantum error correcting procedure with the semion code: an off-shell extension of the double semion model. We construct open strings operators that recover the quantum memory from arbitrary errors and closed string operators that implement the basic logical operations for information processing. Physically, the new open string operators provide a detailed microscopic description of the creation of semions at their endpoints. Remarkably, topological properties of the string operators are determined using fundamental properties of the Hamiltonian, namely the fact that it is composed of commuting local terms squaring to the identity. In all, the semion code is a topological code that, unlike previously studied topological codes, it is of non-CSS type and fits into the stabilizer formalism. This is in sharp contrast with previous attempts yielding non-commutative codes.

Twisted Fracton Models in Three Dimensions

*H Song, A Prem, S-J Huang, MA Martin-Delgado*

We study novel three-dimensional gapped quantum phases of matter which support quasiparticles with restricted mobility, including immobile "fracton" excitations. So far, most existing fracton models may be instructively viewed as generalized Abelian lattice gauge theories. Here, by analogy with Dijkgraaf-Witten topological gauge theories, we discover a natural generalization of fracton models, obtained by twisting the gauge symmetries. Introducing generalized gauge transformation operators carrying an extra phase factor depending on local configurations, we construct a plethora of exactly solvable three-dimensional models, which we dub "twisted fracton models." A key result of our approach is to demonstrate the existence of rich non-Abelian fracton phases of distinct varieties in a three-dimensional system with finite-range interactions. For an accurate characterization of these novel phases, the notion of being inextricably non-Abelian is introduced for fractons and quasiparticles with one-dimensional mobility, referring to their new behavior of displaying braiding statistics that is, and remains, non-Abelian regardless of which quasiparticles with higher mobility are added to or removed from them. We also analyze these models by embedding them on a three-torus and computing their ground state degeneracies, which exhibit a surprising and novel dependence on the system size in the non-Abelian fracton phases. Moreover, as an important advance in the study of fracton order, we develop a general mathematical framework which systematically captures the fusion and braiding properties of fractons and other quasiparticles with restricted mobility.

Topological Phases in Nodeless Tetragonal Superconductors

*S Varona, L Ortiz, O Viyuela, MA Martin-Delgado*

We compute the topological phase diagram of 2D tetragonal superconductors for the only possible nodeless pairing channels compatible with that crystal symmetry. Subject to a Zeeman field and spin-orbit coupling, we demonstrate that these superconductors show surprising topological features: non-trivial high Chern numbers, massive edge states, and zero-energy modes out of high symmetry points, even though the edge states remain topologically protected. Interestingly, one of these pairing symmetries, \(d+id\), has been proposed to describe materials such as water-intercalated sodium cobaltates, bilayer silicene or highly doped monolayer graphene.

The effects of thermal and correlated noise on magnons in a quantum ferromagnet

*J Jeske, A Rivas, MH Ahmed, MA Martin-Delgado, JH Cole*

The dynamics and thermal equilibrium of spin waves (magnons) in a quantum ferromagnet as well as the macroscopic magnetisation are investigated. Thermal noise due to an interaction with lattice phonons and the effects of spatial correlations in the noise are considered. We first present a Markovian master equation approach with analytical solutions for any homogeneous spatial correlation function of the noise. We find that spatially correlated noise increases the decay rate of magnons with low wave vectors to their thermal equilibrium, which also leads to a faster decay of the ferromagnet's magnetisation to its steady-state value. For long correlation lengths and higher temperature we find that additionally there is a component of the magnetisation which decays very slowly, due to a reduced decay rate of fast magnons. This effect could be useful for fast and noise-protected quantum or classical information transfer and magnonics. We further compare ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic behaviour in noisy environments and find qualitatively similar behaviour in Ohmic but fundamentally different behaviour in super-Ohmic environments.

Twins Percolation for Qubit Losses in Topological Color Codes

*D Vodola, D Amaro, MA Martin-Delgado, M Müller*

We establish and explore a new connection between quantum information theory and classical statistical mechanics by studying the problem of qubit losses in 2D topological color codes. We introduce a protocol to cope with qubit losses, which is based on the identification and removal of a twin qubit from the code, and which guarantees the recovery of a valid three-colorable and trivalent reconstructed color code lattice. Moreover, we show that determining the corresponding qubit loss error threshold is equivalent to a new generalized classical percolation process. We numerically compute the associated qubit loss thresholds for two families of 2D color code and find that these are close to satisfying the fundamental limit pfund=0.461±0.005 close to the 50% as imposed by the no-cloning theorem. Our findings reveal a new connection between topological color codes and percolation theory, show high robustness of color codes against qubit loss, and are relevant for implementations of quantum error correction in various physical platforms.

We present a full quantum error correcting procedure with the semion code: an off-shell extension of the double semion model. We construct open strings operators that recover the quantum memory from arbitrary errors and closed string operators that implement the basic logical operations for information processing. Physically, the new open string operators provide a detailed microscopic description of the creation of semions at their endpoints. Remarkably, topological properties of the string operators are determined using fundamental properties of the Hamiltonian, namely the fact that it is composed of commuting local terms squaring to the identity. In all, the semion code is a topological code that, unlike previously studied topological codes, it is of non-CSS type and fits into the stabilizer formalism. This is in sharp contrast with previous attempts yielding non-commutative codes.

Twisted Fracton Models in Three Dimensions

We study novel three-dimensional gapped quantum phases of matter which support quasiparticles with restricted mobility, including immobile "fracton" excitations. So far, most existing fracton models may be instructively viewed as generalized Abelian lattice gauge theories. Here, by analogy with Dijkgraaf-Witten topological gauge theories, we discover a natural generalization of fracton models, obtained by twisting the gauge symmetries. Introducing generalized gauge transformation operators carrying an extra phase factor depending on local configurations, we construct a plethora of exactly solvable three-dimensional models, which we dub "twisted fracton models." A key result of our approach is to demonstrate the existence of rich non-Abelian fracton phases of distinct varieties in a three-dimensional system with finite-range interactions. For an accurate characterization of these novel phases, the notion of being inextricably non-Abelian is introduced for fractons and quasiparticles with one-dimensional mobility, referring to their new behavior of displaying braiding statistics that is, and remains, non-Abelian regardless of which quasiparticles with higher mobility are added to or removed from them. We also analyze these models by embedding them on a three-torus and computing their ground state degeneracies, which exhibit a surprising and novel dependence on the system size in the non-Abelian fracton phases. Moreover, as an important advance in the study of fracton order, we develop a general mathematical framework which systematically captures the fusion and braiding properties of fractons and other quasiparticles with restricted mobility.

Topological Phases in Nodeless Tetragonal Superconductors

We compute the topological phase diagram of 2D tetragonal superconductors for the only possible nodeless pairing channels compatible with that crystal symmetry. Subject to a Zeeman field and spin-orbit coupling, we demonstrate that these superconductors show surprising topological features: non-trivial high Chern numbers, massive edge states, and zero-energy modes out of high symmetry points, even though the edge states remain topologically protected. Interestingly, one of these pairing symmetries, \(d+id\), has been proposed to describe materials such as water-intercalated sodium cobaltates, bilayer silicene or highly doped monolayer graphene.

The effects of thermal and correlated noise on magnons in a quantum ferromagnet

The dynamics and thermal equilibrium of spin waves (magnons) in a quantum ferromagnet as well as the macroscopic magnetisation are investigated. Thermal noise due to an interaction with lattice phonons and the effects of spatial correlations in the noise are considered. We first present a Markovian master equation approach with analytical solutions for any homogeneous spatial correlation function of the noise. We find that spatially correlated noise increases the decay rate of magnons with low wave vectors to their thermal equilibrium, which also leads to a faster decay of the ferromagnet's magnetisation to its steady-state value. For long correlation lengths and higher temperature we find that additionally there is a component of the magnetisation which decays very slowly, due to a reduced decay rate of fast magnons. This effect could be useful for fast and noise-protected quantum or classical information transfer and magnonics. We further compare ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic behaviour in noisy environments and find qualitatively similar behaviour in Ohmic but fundamentally different behaviour in super-Ohmic environments.

Twins Percolation for Qubit Losses in Topological Color Codes

We establish and explore a new connection between quantum information theory and classical statistical mechanics by studying the problem of qubit losses in 2D topological color codes. We introduce a protocol to cope with qubit losses, which is based on the identification and removal of a twin qubit from the code, and which guarantees the recovery of a valid three-colorable and trivalent reconstructed color code lattice. Moreover, we show that determining the corresponding qubit loss error threshold is equivalent to a new generalized classical percolation process. We numerically compute the associated qubit loss thresholds for two families of 2D color code and find that these are close to satisfying the fundamental limit pfund=0.461±0.005 close to the 50% as imposed by the no-cloning theorem. Our findings reveal a new connection between topological color codes and percolation theory, show high robustness of color codes against qubit loss, and are relevant for implementations of quantum error correction in various physical platforms.

Staircase to Higher-Order Topological Phase Transitions

*P Cats, A Quelle, O Viyuela, MA Martin-Delgado, C Morais Smith*

We find a series of topological phase transitions of increasing order, beyond the more standard second-order phase transition in a one-dimensional topological superconductor. The jumps in the order of the transitions depend on the range of the pairing interaction, which is parametrized by an algebraic decay with exponent \(\alpha\). Remarkably, in the limit \(\alpha=1\) the order of the topological transition becomes infinite. We compute the critical exponents for the series of higher-order transitions in exact form and find that they fulfil the hyperscaling relation. We also study the critical behaviour at the boundary of the system and discuss potential experimental platforms of magnetic atoms in superconductors.

Localization and oscillations of Majorana fermions in a two-dimensional electron gas coupled with \(d\)-wave superconductors

*L Ortiz, S Varona, O Viyuela, MA Martin-Delgado*

We study the localization and oscillation properties of the Majorana fermions that arise in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a Zeeman field coupled with a \(d\)-wave superconductor. Despite the angular dependence of the \(d\)-wave pairing, localization and oscillation properties are found to be similar to the ones seen in conventional \(s\)-wave superconductors. In addition, we study a microscopic lattice version of the previous system that can be characterized by a topological invariant. We derive its real space representation that involves nearest and next-to-nearest-neighbors pairing. Finally, we show that the emerging chiral Majorana fermions are indeed robust against static disorder. This analysis has potential applications to quantum simulations and experiments in high-\(T_c\) superconductors.

Chiral Topological Superconductors Enhanced by Long-Range Interactions

*O Viyuela, L Fu, MA Martin-Delgado*

We study the phase diagram and edge states of a two-dimensional p-wave superconductor with long-range hopping and pairing amplitudes. New topological phases and quasi-particles different from the usual short-range model are obtained. When both hopping and pairing terms decay with the same exponent, one of the topological chiral phases with propagating Majorana edge states gets significantly enhanced by long-range couplings. On the other hand, when the long-range pairing amplitude decays more slowly than the hopping, we discover new topological phases where propagating Majorana fermions at each edge pair non-locally and become gapped even in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, these non-local edge states are still robust against disorder, remain separated from the bulk and are localised at both edges at the same time. The inclusion of long-range effects is potentially applicable to recent experiments with magnetic impurities and islands in 2D superconductors.

We find a series of topological phase transitions of increasing order, beyond the more standard second-order phase transition in a one-dimensional topological superconductor. The jumps in the order of the transitions depend on the range of the pairing interaction, which is parametrized by an algebraic decay with exponent \(\alpha\). Remarkably, in the limit \(\alpha=1\) the order of the topological transition becomes infinite. We compute the critical exponents for the series of higher-order transitions in exact form and find that they fulfil the hyperscaling relation. We also study the critical behaviour at the boundary of the system and discuss potential experimental platforms of magnetic atoms in superconductors.

Localization and oscillations of Majorana fermions in a two-dimensional electron gas coupled with \(d\)-wave superconductors

We study the localization and oscillation properties of the Majorana fermions that arise in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a Zeeman field coupled with a \(d\)-wave superconductor. Despite the angular dependence of the \(d\)-wave pairing, localization and oscillation properties are found to be similar to the ones seen in conventional \(s\)-wave superconductors. In addition, we study a microscopic lattice version of the previous system that can be characterized by a topological invariant. We derive its real space representation that involves nearest and next-to-nearest-neighbors pairing. Finally, we show that the emerging chiral Majorana fermions are indeed robust against static disorder. This analysis has potential applications to quantum simulations and experiments in high-\(T_c\) superconductors.

Chiral Topological Superconductors Enhanced by Long-Range Interactions

We study the phase diagram and edge states of a two-dimensional p-wave superconductor with long-range hopping and pairing amplitudes. New topological phases and quasi-particles different from the usual short-range model are obtained. When both hopping and pairing terms decay with the same exponent, one of the topological chiral phases with propagating Majorana edge states gets significantly enhanced by long-range couplings. On the other hand, when the long-range pairing amplitude decays more slowly than the hopping, we discover new topological phases where propagating Majorana fermions at each edge pair non-locally and become gapped even in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, these non-local edge states are still robust against disorder, remain separated from the bulk and are localised at both edges at the same time. The inclusion of long-range effects is potentially applicable to recent experiments with magnetic impurities and islands in 2D superconductors.

Enhanced Energy Distribution for Quantum Information Heat Engines

*JM Diaz de la Cruz, MA Martin-Delgado*

A new scenario for energy distribution, security and shareability is presented that assumes the availability of quantum information heat engines and a thermal bath. It is based on the convertibility between entropy and work in the presence of a thermal reservoir. Our approach to the informational content of physical systems that are distributed between users is complementary to the conventional perspective of quantum communication. The latter places the value on the unpredictable content of the transmitted quantum states, while our interest focuses on their certainty. Some well-known results in quantum communication are reused in this context. Particularly, we describe a way to securely distribute quantum states to be used for unlocking energy from thermal sources. We also consider some multi-partite entangled and classically correlated states for a collaborative multi-user sharing of work extraction possibilities. In addition, the relation between the communication and work extraction capabilities is analyzed and written as an equation.

Observation of Majorization Principle for quantum algorithms via 3-D integrated photonic circuits

*F Flamini, N Viggianiello, T Giordani, M Bentivegna, N Spagnolo, A Crespi, G Corrielli, R Osellame, MA Martin-Delgado, F Sciarrino*

The Majorization Principle is a fundamental statement governing the dynamics of information processing in optimal and efficient quantum algorithms. While quantum computation can be modeled to be reversible, due to the unitary evolution undergone by the system, these quantum algorithms are conjectured to obey a quantum arrow of time dictated by the Majorization Principle: the probability distribution associated to the outcomes gets ordered step-by-step until achieving the result of the computation. Here we report on the experimental observation of the effects of the Majorization Principle for two quantum algorithms, namely the quantum fast Fourier transform and a recently introduced validation protocol for the certification of genuine many-boson interference. The demonstration has been performed by employing integrated 3-D photonic circuits fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique, which allows to monitor unambiguously the effects of majorization along the execution of the algorithms. The measured observables provide a strong indication that the Majorization Principle holds true for this wide class of quantum algorithms, thus paving the way for a general tool to design new optimal algorithms with a quantum speedup.

Observation of topological Uhlmann phases with superconducting qubits

*O Viyuela, A Rivas, S Gasparinetti, A Wallraff, S Filipp, MA Martin-Delgado*

Topological insulators and superconductors at finite temperature can be characterized by the topological Uhlmann phase. However, a direct experimental measurement of this invariant has remained elusive in condensed matter systems. Here, we report a measurement of the topological Uhlmann phase for a topological insulator simulated by a system of entangled qubits in the IBM Quantum Experience platform. By making use of ancilla states, otherwise unobservable phases carrying topological information about the system become accessible, enabling the experimental determination of a complete phase diagram including environmental effects. We employ a state-independent measurement protocol which does not involve prior knowledge of the system state. The proposed measurement scheme is extensible to interacting particles and topological models with a large number of bands.

Nonlinear fiber gyroscope for quantum metrology

*A Luis, I Morales, A Rivas*

We examine the performance of a nonlinear fiber gyroscope for improved signal detection beating the quantum limits of its linear counterparts. The performance is examined when the nonlinear gyroscope is illuminated by practical field states, such as coherent and quadrature squeezed states. This is compared with the case of more ideal probes such as photon-number states.

Topological Heat Transport and Symmetry-Protected Boson Currents

*A Rivas and M A Martin-Delgado*

The study of non-equilibrium properties in topological systems is of practical and fundamental importance. Here, we analyze the stationary properties of a two-dimensional boson topological insulator coupled to two thermal baths in the quantum open-system formalism. Novel phenomena appear like chiral edge heat currents that are the out-of-equilibrium counterparts of the zero-temperature edge currents. We find the new set of discrete symmetries that protect these topological heat currents, differing from the zero-temperature limit. Remarkably, one of these currents flows opposite to the decreasing external temperature gradient. As the starting point, we consider the case of a single external reservoir showing prominent results like thermal erasure effects and topological thermal currents. Our results are experimentally accessible with platforms like photonics systems and optical lattices.

A bilayer Double Semion Model with Symmetry-Enriched Topological Order

*L Ortiz, M A Martin-Delgado*

We construct a new model of two-dimensional quantum spin systems that combines intrinsic topo- logical orders and a global symmetry called flavour symmetry. It is referred as the bilayer Doubled Semion model (bDS) and is an instance of symmetry-enriched topological order. A honeycomb bi- layer lattice is introduced to combine a Double Semion Topolgical Order with a global spin-flavour symmetry to get the fractionalization of its quasiparticles. The bDS model exhibits non-trival braid- ing self-statistics of excitations and its dual model constitutes a Symmetry-Protected Topological Order with novel edge states. This dual model gives rise to a bilayer Non-Trivial Paramagnet that is invariant under the flavour symmetry and the well-known spin flip symmetry.

Error tolerance of topological codes with independent bit-flip and measurement errors

*RS Andrist, HG Katzgraber, H Bombin, MA Martin-Delgado*

Topological quantum error correction codes are currently among the most promising candidates for efficiently dealing with the decoherence effects inherently present in quantum devices. Numerically, their theoretical error threshold can be calculated by mapping the underlying quantum problem to a related classical statistical-mechanical spin system with quenched disorder. Here, we present results for the general fault-tolerant regime, where we consider both qubit and measurement errors. However, unlike in previous studies, here we vary the strength of the different error sources independently. Our results highlight peculiar differences between toric and color codes. This study complements previous results published in New J. Phys. 13, 083006 (2011).

Quantum Enhanced Energy Distribution for Information Heat Engines

*JM Diaz de la Cruz, MA Martin-Delgado*

A new scenario for energy distribution, security and shareability is presented that assumes the availability of quantum information heat engines and a thermal bath. It is based on the convertibility between entropy and work in the presence of a thermal reservoir. Our approach to the informational content of physical systems that are distributed between users is complementary to the conventional perspective of quantum communication. The latter places the value on the unpredictable content of the transmitted quantum states, while our interest focuses on their certainty. Some well-known results in quantum communication are reused in this context. Particularly, we describe a way to securely distribute quantum states to be used for unlocking energy from thermal sources. We also consider some multi-partite entangled and classically correlated states for a collaborative multi-user sharing of work extraction possibilities.

Iterative Phase Optimisation of Elementary Quantum Error Correcting Codes

*M Müller, A Rivas, EA Martínez, D Nigg, P Schindler, T Monz, R Blatt, MA Martin-Delgado*

Performing experiments on small-scale quantum computers is certainly a challenging endeavor. Many parameters need to be optimized to achieve high-fidelity operations. This can be done efficiently for operations acting on single qubits as errors can be fully characterized. For multi-qubit operations, though, this is no longer the case as in the most general case analyzing the effect of the operation on the system requires a full state tomography for which resources scale exponentially with the system size. Furthermore, in recent experiments additional electronic levels beyond the two-level system encoding the qubit have been used to enhance the capabilities of quantum information processors, which additionally increases the number of parameters that need to be controlled. For the optimization of the experimental system for a given task (e.g.~a quantum algorithm), one has to find a satisfactory error model and also efficient observables to estimate the parameters of the model. In this manuscript we demonstrate a method to optimize the encoding procedure for a small quantum error correction code in the presence of unknown but constant phase shifts. The method, which we implement here on a small-scale linear ion-trap quantum computer, is readily applicable to other AMO platforms for quantum information processing.

A new scenario for energy distribution, security and shareability is presented that assumes the availability of quantum information heat engines and a thermal bath. It is based on the convertibility between entropy and work in the presence of a thermal reservoir. Our approach to the informational content of physical systems that are distributed between users is complementary to the conventional perspective of quantum communication. The latter places the value on the unpredictable content of the transmitted quantum states, while our interest focuses on their certainty. Some well-known results in quantum communication are reused in this context. Particularly, we describe a way to securely distribute quantum states to be used for unlocking energy from thermal sources. We also consider some multi-partite entangled and classically correlated states for a collaborative multi-user sharing of work extraction possibilities. In addition, the relation between the communication and work extraction capabilities is analyzed and written as an equation.

Observation of Majorization Principle for quantum algorithms via 3-D integrated photonic circuits

The Majorization Principle is a fundamental statement governing the dynamics of information processing in optimal and efficient quantum algorithms. While quantum computation can be modeled to be reversible, due to the unitary evolution undergone by the system, these quantum algorithms are conjectured to obey a quantum arrow of time dictated by the Majorization Principle: the probability distribution associated to the outcomes gets ordered step-by-step until achieving the result of the computation. Here we report on the experimental observation of the effects of the Majorization Principle for two quantum algorithms, namely the quantum fast Fourier transform and a recently introduced validation protocol for the certification of genuine many-boson interference. The demonstration has been performed by employing integrated 3-D photonic circuits fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique, which allows to monitor unambiguously the effects of majorization along the execution of the algorithms. The measured observables provide a strong indication that the Majorization Principle holds true for this wide class of quantum algorithms, thus paving the way for a general tool to design new optimal algorithms with a quantum speedup.

Observation of topological Uhlmann phases with superconducting qubits

Topological insulators and superconductors at finite temperature can be characterized by the topological Uhlmann phase. However, a direct experimental measurement of this invariant has remained elusive in condensed matter systems. Here, we report a measurement of the topological Uhlmann phase for a topological insulator simulated by a system of entangled qubits in the IBM Quantum Experience platform. By making use of ancilla states, otherwise unobservable phases carrying topological information about the system become accessible, enabling the experimental determination of a complete phase diagram including environmental effects. We employ a state-independent measurement protocol which does not involve prior knowledge of the system state. The proposed measurement scheme is extensible to interacting particles and topological models with a large number of bands.

Nonlinear fiber gyroscope for quantum metrology

We examine the performance of a nonlinear fiber gyroscope for improved signal detection beating the quantum limits of its linear counterparts. The performance is examined when the nonlinear gyroscope is illuminated by practical field states, such as coherent and quadrature squeezed states. This is compared with the case of more ideal probes such as photon-number states.

Topological Heat Transport and Symmetry-Protected Boson Currents

The study of non-equilibrium properties in topological systems is of practical and fundamental importance. Here, we analyze the stationary properties of a two-dimensional boson topological insulator coupled to two thermal baths in the quantum open-system formalism. Novel phenomena appear like chiral edge heat currents that are the out-of-equilibrium counterparts of the zero-temperature edge currents. We find the new set of discrete symmetries that protect these topological heat currents, differing from the zero-temperature limit. Remarkably, one of these currents flows opposite to the decreasing external temperature gradient. As the starting point, we consider the case of a single external reservoir showing prominent results like thermal erasure effects and topological thermal currents. Our results are experimentally accessible with platforms like photonics systems and optical lattices.

A bilayer Double Semion Model with Symmetry-Enriched Topological Order

We construct a new model of two-dimensional quantum spin systems that combines intrinsic topo- logical orders and a global symmetry called flavour symmetry. It is referred as the bilayer Doubled Semion model (bDS) and is an instance of symmetry-enriched topological order. A honeycomb bi- layer lattice is introduced to combine a Double Semion Topolgical Order with a global spin-flavour symmetry to get the fractionalization of its quasiparticles. The bDS model exhibits non-trival braid- ing self-statistics of excitations and its dual model constitutes a Symmetry-Protected Topological Order with novel edge states. This dual model gives rise to a bilayer Non-Trivial Paramagnet that is invariant under the flavour symmetry and the well-known spin flip symmetry.

Error tolerance of topological codes with independent bit-flip and measurement errors

Topological quantum error correction codes are currently among the most promising candidates for efficiently dealing with the decoherence effects inherently present in quantum devices. Numerically, their theoretical error threshold can be calculated by mapping the underlying quantum problem to a related classical statistical-mechanical spin system with quenched disorder. Here, we present results for the general fault-tolerant regime, where we consider both qubit and measurement errors. However, unlike in previous studies, here we vary the strength of the different error sources independently. Our results highlight peculiar differences between toric and color codes. This study complements previous results published in New J. Phys. 13, 083006 (2011).

Quantum Enhanced Energy Distribution for Information Heat Engines

A new scenario for energy distribution, security and shareability is presented that assumes the availability of quantum information heat engines and a thermal bath. It is based on the convertibility between entropy and work in the presence of a thermal reservoir. Our approach to the informational content of physical systems that are distributed between users is complementary to the conventional perspective of quantum communication. The latter places the value on the unpredictable content of the transmitted quantum states, while our interest focuses on their certainty. Some well-known results in quantum communication are reused in this context. Particularly, we describe a way to securely distribute quantum states to be used for unlocking energy from thermal sources. We also consider some multi-partite entangled and classically correlated states for a collaborative multi-user sharing of work extraction possibilities.

Iterative Phase Optimisation of Elementary Quantum Error Correcting Codes

Performing experiments on small-scale quantum computers is certainly a challenging endeavor. Many parameters need to be optimized to achieve high-fidelity operations. This can be done efficiently for operations acting on single qubits as errors can be fully characterized. For multi-qubit operations, though, this is no longer the case as in the most general case analyzing the effect of the operation on the system requires a full state tomography for which resources scale exponentially with the system size. Furthermore, in recent experiments additional electronic levels beyond the two-level system encoding the qubit have been used to enhance the capabilities of quantum information processors, which additionally increases the number of parameters that need to be controlled. For the optimization of the experimental system for a given task (e.g.~a quantum algorithm), one has to find a satisfactory error model and also efficient observables to estimate the parameters of the model. In this manuscript we demonstrate a method to optimize the encoding procedure for a small quantum error correction code in the presence of unknown but constant phase shifts. The method, which we implement here on a small-scale linear ion-trap quantum computer, is readily applicable to other AMO platforms for quantum information processing.

Topological Massive Dirac Edge Modes and Long-Range Superconducting Hamiltonians

*O Viyuela, D Vodola, G Pupillo, MA Martin-Delgado*

We discover novel topological effects in the one-dimensional Kitaev chain modified by long-range Hamiltonian deformations in the hopping and pairing terms. This class of models display symmetry-protected topological order measured by the Berry phase of the ground state and the winding number of the Hamiltonians. For exponentially-decaying hopping amplitudes, the topological sector can be significantly augmented as the penetration length increases, something experimentally achievable. For power-law decaying superconducting pairings, the massless Majorana modes at the edges get paired together into a massive non-local Dirac fermion localised at both edges of the chain: a new topological quasiparticle that we call topological massive Dirac fermion. This topological phase has fractional topological numbers as a consequence of the long-range couplings. Possible applications to current experimental setups and topological quantum computation are also discussed.

Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology

*A Luis, A Rivas*

We examine quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. This nonlinear interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear processes. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the energy resources.

Quantifying Spatial Correlations of General Quantum Dynamics

*A Rivas, M Müller*

Understanding the role of correlations in quantum systems is both a fundamental challenge as well as of high practical relevance for the control of multi-particle quantum systems. Whereas a lot of research has been devoted to study the various types of correlations that can be present in the states of quantum systems, in this work we introduce a general and rigorous method to quantify the amount of correlations in the dynamics of quantum systems. Using a resource-theoretical approach, we introduce a suitable quantifier and characterize the properties of correlated dynamics. Furthermore, we benchmark our method by applying it to the paradigmatic case of two atoms weakly coupled to the electromagnetic radiation field, and illustrate its potential use to detect and assess spatial noise correlations in quantum computing architectures.

Symmetry-protected topological phases at finite temperature

*O Viyuela, A Rivas and M A Martin-Delgado*

We have applied the recently developed theory of topological Uhlmann numbers to a representative model of a topological insulator in two dimensions, the Qi–Wu–Zhang model. We have found a stable symmetry-protected topological phase under external thermal fluctuations in two dimensions. A complete phase diagram for this model is computed as a function of temperature and coupling constants in the original Hamiltonian. It shows the appearance of large stable phases of matter with topological properties compatible with thermal fluctuations or external noise and the existence of critical lines separating abruptly trivial phases from topological phases. These novel critical temperatures represent thermal topological phase transitions. The initial part of the paper comprises a self-contained explanation of the Uhlmann geometric phase needed to understand the topological properties that it may acquire when applied to topological insulators and superconductors.

Uhlmann Measure in Topological Insulators and Superconductors at Finite Temperature

*O Viyuela, A Rivas and M A Martin-Delgado*

I will introduce the Uhlmann geometric phase as a tool to characterise density matrices of 1D and 2D topological insulators and superconductors. We achieve this goal by constructing new topological invariants called Topological Uhlmann numbers. Since this phase is formulated for general mixed quantum states, it provides a way to extend topological properties to finite temperature situations. New effects appear such as the existence of critical temperatures, novel thermal-topological transitions in models with high Chern numbers, breakdown of the usual bulk-edge correspondence, etc. Moreover, as the Uhlmann phase is an observable itself, we analyse potential measurement schemes that could be applicable to current experimental setups like cold atoms in optical lattices.

Incompatible Statistics and Bell-KS Theorem

*A Rivas*

We analyze a possible loophole to the conclusion of the Bell-KS theorem that quantum mechanics is not compatible with any realistic and noncontextual or local theory. We emphasize that the models discarded by Bell-KS-like arguments possess a property not shared by quantum mechanics, i.e. the capability to make non-trivial statements about the joint statistics of quantum incompatible observables. By ruling out this possibility, apparently nothing seems to prevent from a realistic, noncontextual or local view of quantum mechanics.

We discover novel topological effects in the one-dimensional Kitaev chain modified by long-range Hamiltonian deformations in the hopping and pairing terms. This class of models display symmetry-protected topological order measured by the Berry phase of the ground state and the winding number of the Hamiltonians. For exponentially-decaying hopping amplitudes, the topological sector can be significantly augmented as the penetration length increases, something experimentally achievable. For power-law decaying superconducting pairings, the massless Majorana modes at the edges get paired together into a massive non-local Dirac fermion localised at both edges of the chain: a new topological quasiparticle that we call topological massive Dirac fermion. This topological phase has fractional topological numbers as a consequence of the long-range couplings. Possible applications to current experimental setups and topological quantum computation are also discussed.

Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology

We examine quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. This nonlinear interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear processes. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the energy resources.

Quantifying Spatial Correlations of General Quantum Dynamics

Understanding the role of correlations in quantum systems is both a fundamental challenge as well as of high practical relevance for the control of multi-particle quantum systems. Whereas a lot of research has been devoted to study the various types of correlations that can be present in the states of quantum systems, in this work we introduce a general and rigorous method to quantify the amount of correlations in the dynamics of quantum systems. Using a resource-theoretical approach, we introduce a suitable quantifier and characterize the properties of correlated dynamics. Furthermore, we benchmark our method by applying it to the paradigmatic case of two atoms weakly coupled to the electromagnetic radiation field, and illustrate its potential use to detect and assess spatial noise correlations in quantum computing architectures.

Symmetry-protected topological phases at finite temperature

We have applied the recently developed theory of topological Uhlmann numbers to a representative model of a topological insulator in two dimensions, the Qi–Wu–Zhang model. We have found a stable symmetry-protected topological phase under external thermal fluctuations in two dimensions. A complete phase diagram for this model is computed as a function of temperature and coupling constants in the original Hamiltonian. It shows the appearance of large stable phases of matter with topological properties compatible with thermal fluctuations or external noise and the existence of critical lines separating abruptly trivial phases from topological phases. These novel critical temperatures represent thermal topological phase transitions. The initial part of the paper comprises a self-contained explanation of the Uhlmann geometric phase needed to understand the topological properties that it may acquire when applied to topological insulators and superconductors.

Uhlmann Measure in Topological Insulators and Superconductors at Finite Temperature

I will introduce the Uhlmann geometric phase as a tool to characterise density matrices of 1D and 2D topological insulators and superconductors. We achieve this goal by constructing new topological invariants called Topological Uhlmann numbers. Since this phase is formulated for general mixed quantum states, it provides a way to extend topological properties to finite temperature situations. New effects appear such as the existence of critical temperatures, novel thermal-topological transitions in models with high Chern numbers, breakdown of the usual bulk-edge correspondence, etc. Moreover, as the Uhlmann phase is an observable itself, we analyse potential measurement schemes that could be applicable to current experimental setups like cold atoms in optical lattices.

Incompatible Statistics and Bell-KS Theorem

We analyze a possible loophole to the conclusion of the Bell-KS theorem that quantum mechanics is not compatible with any realistic and noncontextual or local theory. We emphasize that the models discarded by Bell-KS-like arguments possess a property not shared by quantum mechanics, i.e. the capability to make non-trivial statements about the joint statistics of quantum incompatible observables. By ruling out this possibility, apparently nothing seems to prevent from a realistic, noncontextual or local view of quantum mechanics.

Quantum Non-Markovianity: Characterization, Quantification and Detection

*A Rivas, SF Huelga, MB Plenio*

We present a comprehensive and up to date review on the concept of quantum non-Markovianity, a central theme in the theory of open quantum systems. We introduce the concept of quantum Markovian process as a generalization of the classical definition of Markovianity via the so-called divisibility property and relate this notion to the intuitive idea that links non-Markovianity with the persistence of memory effects. A detailed comparison with other definitions presented in the literature is provided. We then discuss several existing proposals to quantify the degree of non-Markovianity of quantum dynamics and to witness non-Markovian behavior, the latter providing sufficient conditions to detect deviations from strict Markovianity. Finally, we conclude by enumerating some timely open problems in the field and provide an outlook on possible research directions.

Two-Dimensional Density-Matrix Topological Fermionic Phases: Topological Uhlmann Numbers

*O Viyuela, A Rivas and M A Martin-Delgado*

We construct a topological invariant that classifies density matrices of symmetry-protected topological orders in two-dimensional fermionic systems. As it is constructed out of the previously introduced Uhlmann phase, we refer to it as the topological Uhlmann number \(n_U\). With it, we study thermal topological phases in several two-dimensional models of topological insulators and superconductors, computing phase diagrams where the temperature \(T\) is on an equal footing with the coupling constants in the Hamiltonian. Moreover, we find novel thermal-topological transitions between two nontrivial phases in a model with high Chern numbers. At small temperatures we recover the standard topological phases as the Uhlmann number approaches to the Chern number.

Quantum Google algorithm

*GD Paparo, M Müller, F Comellas, MA Martin-Delgado*

We review the main findings on the ranking capabilities of the recently proposed Quantum PageRank algorithm (G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 2, 444 (2012) and G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 2773 (2013)) applied to large complex networks. The algorithm has been shown to identify unambiguously the underlying topology of the network and to be capable of clearly highlighting the structure of secondary hubs of networks. Furthermore, it can resolve the degeneracy in importance of the low-lying part of the list of rankings. Examples of applications include real-world instances from the WWW, which typically display a scale-free network structure and models of hierarchical networks. The quantum algorithm has been shown to display an increased stability with respect to a variation of the damping parameter, present in the Google algorithm, and a more clearly pronounced power-law behaviour in the distribution of importance among the nodes, as compared to the classical algorithm.

Quantum computations on a topologically encoded qubit

* D Nigg, M Müller, E A Martinez, P Schindler, M Hennrich, T Monz, M A Martin-Delgado, R Blatt*

The construction of a quantum computer remains a fundamental scientific and technological challenge because of the influence of unavoidable noise. Quantum states and operations can be protected from errors through the use of protocols for quantum computing with faulty components. We present a quantum error-correcting code in which one qubit is encoded in entangled states distributed over seven trapped-ion qubits. The code can detect one bit flip error, one phase flip error, or a combined error of both, regardless on which of the qubits they occur. We applied sequences of gate operations on the encoded qubit to explore its computational capabilities. This seven-qubit code represents a fully functional instance of a topologically encoded qubit, or color code, and opens a route toward fault-tolerant quantum computing.

Efficient algorithm to compute the Berry conductivity

*A Dauphin, M Müller, MA Martin-Delgado*

We propose and construct a numerical algorithm to calculate the Berry conductivity in topological band insulators. The method is applicable to cold atom systems as well as solid state setups, both for the insulating case where the Fermi energy lies in the gap between two bulk bands as well as in the metallic regime. This method interpolates smoothly between both regimes. The algorithm is gauge-invariant by construction, efficient, and yields the Berry conductivity with known and controllable statistical error bars. We apply the algorithm to several paradigmatic models in the field of topological insulators, including Haldaneʼs model on the honeycomb lattice, the multi-band Hofstadter model, and the BHZ model, which describes the 2D spin Hall effect observed in CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum well heterostructures.

Quantum speedup for active learning agents

*GD Paparo, V Dunjko, A Makmal, MA Martin-Delgado, HJ Briegel*

Can quantum mechanics help us in building intelligent robots and agents? One of the defining characteristics of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in any real-life situation is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Owing to, e.g., a large space of possible strategies, learning is typically slow. Even for a moderate task environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here we show that quantum physics can help and provide a significant speed-up for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. We introduce a large class of quantum learning agents for which we show a quadratic boost in their active learning efficiency over their classical analogues. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.

Quantum Google algorithm

*GD Paparo, M Müller, F Comellas, MA Martin-Delgado*

We review the main findings on the ranking capabilities of the recently proposed Quantum PageRank algorithm (G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 2, 444 (2012) and G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 2773 (2013)) applied to large complex networks. The algorithm has been shown to identify unambiguously the underlying topology of the network and to be capable of clearly highlighting the structure of secondary hubs of networks. Furthermore, it can resolve the degeneracy in importance of the low-lying part of the list of rankings. Examples of applications include real-world instances from the WWW, which typically display a scale-free network structure and models of hierarchical networks. The quantum algorithm has been shown to display an increased stability with respect to a variation of the damping parameter, present in the Google algorithm, and a more clearly pronounced power-law behaviour in the distribution of importance among the nodes, as compared to the classical algorithm.

Uhlmann phase as a topological measure for one-dimensional fermion systems

*O Viyuela, A Rivas, MA Martin-Delgado*

We introduce the Uhlmann geometric phase as a tool to characterize symmetry-protected topological phases in one-dimensional fermion systems, such as topological insulators and superconductors. Since this phase is formulated for general mixed quantum states, it provides a way to extend topological properties to finite temperature situations. We illustrate these ideas with some paradigmatic models and find that there exists a critical temperature Tc at which the Uhlmann phase goes discontinuously and abruptly to zero. This stands as a borderline between two different topological phases as a function of the temperature. Furthermore, at small temperatures we recover the usual notion of topological phase in fermion systems.

Quantum-information engines with many-body states attaining optimal extractable work with quantum control

*JM Diaz de la Cruz, MA Martin-Delgado*

We introduce quantum information engines that extract work from quantum states and a single thermal reservoir. They may operate under three general conditions: i/ Unitarily Steered evolution (US); ii/ Irreversible Thermalization (IT) and iii/ Isothermal Relaxation (IR), and hence are called USITIR machines. They include novel engines without traditional feedback control mechanisms, as well as versions which also include them. Explicit constructions of USITIR engines are presented for one- and two-qubit states and their maximum extractable work is computed, which is optimal. Optimality is achieved when the notions of controllable thermalizability and density matrix controllability are fullfilled. Then, many-body extensions of USITIR engines are also analyzed and conditions for optimal work extraction are identified. When they are not met, we measure their lack of optimality by means of newly defined uncontrollable entropies, that are explicitly computed for some selected examples. This includes cases of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles.

Reducing space-time to binary information

*S Weinfurtner, G De las Cuevas, MA Martin-Delgado, HJ Briegel*

We present a new description of discrete space-time in 1+1 dimensions in terms of a set of elementary geometrical units that represent its independent classical degrees of freedom. This is achieved by means of a binary encoding that is ergodic in the class of space-time manifolds respecting coordinate invariance of general relativity. Space-time fluctuations can be represented in a classical lattice gas model whose Boltzmann weights are constructed with the discretized form of the Einstein-Hilbert action. Within this framework, it is possible to compute basic quantities such as the Ricci curvature tensor and the Einstein equations, and to evaluate the path integral of discrete gravity. The description as a lattice gas model also provides a novel way of quantization and, at the same time, to quantum simulation of fluctuating space-time.

We present a comprehensive and up to date review on the concept of quantum non-Markovianity, a central theme in the theory of open quantum systems. We introduce the concept of quantum Markovian process as a generalization of the classical definition of Markovianity via the so-called divisibility property and relate this notion to the intuitive idea that links non-Markovianity with the persistence of memory effects. A detailed comparison with other definitions presented in the literature is provided. We then discuss several existing proposals to quantify the degree of non-Markovianity of quantum dynamics and to witness non-Markovian behavior, the latter providing sufficient conditions to detect deviations from strict Markovianity. Finally, we conclude by enumerating some timely open problems in the field and provide an outlook on possible research directions.

Two-Dimensional Density-Matrix Topological Fermionic Phases: Topological Uhlmann Numbers

We construct a topological invariant that classifies density matrices of symmetry-protected topological orders in two-dimensional fermionic systems. As it is constructed out of the previously introduced Uhlmann phase, we refer to it as the topological Uhlmann number \(n_U\). With it, we study thermal topological phases in several two-dimensional models of topological insulators and superconductors, computing phase diagrams where the temperature \(T\) is on an equal footing with the coupling constants in the Hamiltonian. Moreover, we find novel thermal-topological transitions between two nontrivial phases in a model with high Chern numbers. At small temperatures we recover the standard topological phases as the Uhlmann number approaches to the Chern number.

Quantum Google algorithm

We review the main findings on the ranking capabilities of the recently proposed Quantum PageRank algorithm (G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 2, 444 (2012) and G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 2773 (2013)) applied to large complex networks. The algorithm has been shown to identify unambiguously the underlying topology of the network and to be capable of clearly highlighting the structure of secondary hubs of networks. Furthermore, it can resolve the degeneracy in importance of the low-lying part of the list of rankings. Examples of applications include real-world instances from the WWW, which typically display a scale-free network structure and models of hierarchical networks. The quantum algorithm has been shown to display an increased stability with respect to a variation of the damping parameter, present in the Google algorithm, and a more clearly pronounced power-law behaviour in the distribution of importance among the nodes, as compared to the classical algorithm.

Quantum computations on a topologically encoded qubit

The construction of a quantum computer remains a fundamental scientific and technological challenge because of the influence of unavoidable noise. Quantum states and operations can be protected from errors through the use of protocols for quantum computing with faulty components. We present a quantum error-correcting code in which one qubit is encoded in entangled states distributed over seven trapped-ion qubits. The code can detect one bit flip error, one phase flip error, or a combined error of both, regardless on which of the qubits they occur. We applied sequences of gate operations on the encoded qubit to explore its computational capabilities. This seven-qubit code represents a fully functional instance of a topologically encoded qubit, or color code, and opens a route toward fault-tolerant quantum computing.

Efficient algorithm to compute the Berry conductivity

We propose and construct a numerical algorithm to calculate the Berry conductivity in topological band insulators. The method is applicable to cold atom systems as well as solid state setups, both for the insulating case where the Fermi energy lies in the gap between two bulk bands as well as in the metallic regime. This method interpolates smoothly between both regimes. The algorithm is gauge-invariant by construction, efficient, and yields the Berry conductivity with known and controllable statistical error bars. We apply the algorithm to several paradigmatic models in the field of topological insulators, including Haldaneʼs model on the honeycomb lattice, the multi-band Hofstadter model, and the BHZ model, which describes the 2D spin Hall effect observed in CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum well heterostructures.

Quantum speedup for active learning agents

Can quantum mechanics help us in building intelligent robots and agents? One of the defining characteristics of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for agents to learn in any real-life situation is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Owing to, e.g., a large space of possible strategies, learning is typically slow. Even for a moderate task environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an agent may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here we show that quantum physics can help and provide a significant speed-up for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. We introduce a large class of quantum learning agents for which we show a quadratic boost in their active learning efficiency over their classical analogues. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.

Quantum Google algorithm

We review the main findings on the ranking capabilities of the recently proposed Quantum PageRank algorithm (G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 2, 444 (2012) and G.D. Paparo et al., Sci. Rep. 3, 2773 (2013)) applied to large complex networks. The algorithm has been shown to identify unambiguously the underlying topology of the network and to be capable of clearly highlighting the structure of secondary hubs of networks. Furthermore, it can resolve the degeneracy in importance of the low-lying part of the list of rankings. Examples of applications include real-world instances from the WWW, which typically display a scale-free network structure and models of hierarchical networks. The quantum algorithm has been shown to display an increased stability with respect to a variation of the damping parameter, present in the Google algorithm, and a more clearly pronounced power-law behaviour in the distribution of importance among the nodes, as compared to the classical algorithm.

Uhlmann phase as a topological measure for one-dimensional fermion systems

We introduce the Uhlmann geometric phase as a tool to characterize symmetry-protected topological phases in one-dimensional fermion systems, such as topological insulators and superconductors. Since this phase is formulated for general mixed quantum states, it provides a way to extend topological properties to finite temperature situations. We illustrate these ideas with some paradigmatic models and find that there exists a critical temperature Tc at which the Uhlmann phase goes discontinuously and abruptly to zero. This stands as a borderline between two different topological phases as a function of the temperature. Furthermore, at small temperatures we recover the usual notion of topological phase in fermion systems.

Quantum-information engines with many-body states attaining optimal extractable work with quantum control

We introduce quantum information engines that extract work from quantum states and a single thermal reservoir. They may operate under three general conditions: i/ Unitarily Steered evolution (US); ii/ Irreversible Thermalization (IT) and iii/ Isothermal Relaxation (IR), and hence are called USITIR machines. They include novel engines without traditional feedback control mechanisms, as well as versions which also include them. Explicit constructions of USITIR engines are presented for one- and two-qubit states and their maximum extractable work is computed, which is optimal. Optimality is achieved when the notions of controllable thermalizability and density matrix controllability are fullfilled. Then, many-body extensions of USITIR engines are also analyzed and conditions for optimal work extraction are identified. When they are not met, we measure their lack of optimality by means of newly defined uncontrollable entropies, that are explicitly computed for some selected examples. This includes cases of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles.

Reducing space-time to binary information

We present a new description of discrete space-time in 1+1 dimensions in terms of a set of elementary geometrical units that represent its independent classical degrees of freedom. This is achieved by means of a binary encoding that is ergodic in the class of space-time manifolds respecting coordinate invariance of general relativity. Space-time fluctuations can be represented in a classical lattice gas model whose Boltzmann weights are constructed with the discretized form of the Einstein-Hilbert action. Within this framework, it is possible to compute basic quantities such as the Ricci curvature tensor and the Einstein equations, and to evaluate the path integral of discrete gravity. The description as a lattice gas model also provides a novel way of quantization and, at the same time, to quantum simulation of fluctuating space-time.